The unfortunate event of MAS Airline Company with the missing MH307 and the mishap of MH17 has made the company broken beyond repair. It is already making huge losses prior to these 2 unfortunate events. Like most of the GLC companies, unlike our neighboring SIA and our homegrown AirAsia are reaping huge profits, such heavy losses occurred under the purview of the largest shareholder – the sovereign fund of Khazanah. The question is what make 100% ownership by Khazanah would make any different? Well, they may probably rope in a new CEO and this is what he may do taking reference to what a situation may have been in private entity.
The Observation phase (the 1st Four months) – He will give a throughout analysis of the situation and establish himself as the knight on silver armor. Salvage whatever salvageable. Identifying what are the assets and liabilities. Rock the establishment to the core shaking up status quo, placing the previous management on the chopping block under CBT. He will suddenly stop payment to all non-productive supplies that the earlier management has entered upon. Renovate his new office and bought himself a new car under company expanses. Recruit his panel of Yes-man and he will continue to strive the value of its share further downward so that it reaches the ocean floor. On top of such, he will buy these shares in an under value state with bank facilities and he sits in his make-shift office, usually a 5 stars hotel lobby and start dishing out statements of how he is going to make a comeback to the media. Follow-up by luncheons and dinners with bankers, lobbyist, political agents and proxies, striking deals after deals to strategize short and midterms plan to dissect the valuable leftovers, pawn the liabilities, camouflage its commitments and so forth. The immediate goal is to make the company off from the red.
The Execution phase (the 2nd Four months) – He will disposes some and if not all the valuable assets the company has to 3rd party (could also be his benefactors) and reported to the shareholders as debt management. He will also enter into rearrangement with bankers with these potential sales for more bridging facilities that can bring him through over his tenure as the CEO. Such deal makings may and may not materialize in kick-backs and so forth. He may also renegotiate terms with the existing suppliers, who are by such time may have to resort to legal recourse, with a win-win situation including bringing in his preferred suppliers, swapping contracts. He will undoubtedly recruit new talents, motivate existing work force, draw up a new plans that cover every aspect of the company as his mission and vision statement. Continue to be the media darlings so that his effort not only being implemented but seen to be implemented with new ventures steam rolling out from the company. Such selling of assets is rated the most effective means to bring the company back to the blue and the question is how many assets can one disposed?
The Evaluation phase (the 3rd Four months) – It is time to reap his benefits. As the value of shares rose up from the abyss, he is in the position to demand more and he will pocket a chunk of huge bonuses from the shareholders. He and his merry men are ready to “rape” the company so that by the time he is no longer needed, everything will fall back to where he begins with. He will release his shares at market price progressively. All the sudden deals are cut short or rather didn’t materialize, assets are bought back at exorbitant price and the outflows such as debt repayment start to escalate. That is a good portrayal of what is happening in most distress companies run by professional CEOs.
The same can be applied anywhere else from running an architectural practice to running a country (with a longer period of 5 years). Such paradigm is not new and it is reflected in Chinese Metaphysics for century, a topic I shall discuss some other times.
Have you ever wonder how a top Architect closes deal? Here are some nuggets: -
1. When a Client gives you a near impossible dateline such as completing a Building in 2.5 months’ time without a design, construction approval and so forth, this is how you would like to say to him – “Well, we can take up your challenge but there are some technicalities and risks you must prepare to take. This is to help yourself as no one want his construction to stop mid-way? Worse the authority may want you to demolish them but let just see what can be done about it…”. The fact is in the local context, you submit the drawings (even if it is half-cooked) while waiting for approval, get an early commencement or prepare to opt for the “denial syndrome” and say – “Well, we aren’t aware that the contractor has commenced work and we shall put things right and come back to you”. Yeah! The favorite escape clause.
2. With regard to item (1) and to save your own interest, this is how you can put it – “Well… you know we are now embarking on something unconventional, it is our obligations to advise you accordingly but, anyway, it is not going to be of much concerned, just file it and keep it aside”. It is nicely put that the Client don’t feel pressure for doing things “illegally”.
3. With regard to FEE – “Alright we have covered most grounds and there is this little thing about our FEES that I really hope you can agreed. Well, to be honest… I really don’t know how much I should charge… but given the situation of time constraint with many unknowns I think we should just agree upon a percentage like say 10-12% or what figure do you have in mind?”. Let’s assume the client says, “Well, that is what I have in mind”, you just close the sale by saying, “Yup, lets agreed on 10-12% and when we have solids quotation from the contractor we can always translate it to Lump-Sum”.
Strategizing Your Firm is an uphill battle for an architect. Your architectural education does not provide you with the essential knowhow to survive the Red Ocean. That is one good reason why a Business degree is always the preferred choice before you do a post Grad in Architecture. At the very least, you will not be a pauper.
So what did the Business Guru has to say about strategizing? A “Farm House” matrix is a model of production to gauge the current situation of your organization against what you ought to be in the next level. Likewise, Architecture is a failed business model from the first principle and this matrix will tell you so.
Relative Market Share (RMS) is a yardstick to measure the popularity of a product, in this case your services as an Architect. The higher the demands means your services are highly sought after and the reverse is true for the lower RMS.
Market Growth Rate (MGR) is a yardstick to measure the ability of the organization to grow. Growth is in terms of acquiring RMS. The faster it is the better and it is very dependable on Marketing, Product Acceptance, Advertising, Lobbying and BRANDING… It eats up into your operation cost but together it is essential to push up your revenues.
Errorneous (E) is the measurement of regressive of an organization of moving forward. It is a measurement of Self-Denial, Self-doubt and most importantly Self-Destruction (A Topic we shall discuss later).
Go back to the business of architecture, you need to ask what your business model is? Production, Service or Design oriented? Then you dwell into the matter of Doing the Business, Branding and so forth…
The greater E factors you have with regard to low MGR and RMS, you are considered a DOG. Someone that can easily forgotten and disposed of. There is very little value in the organization.
If you woke up someday with lower E factors, will reorganize yourself. Re brand your establishment engage new talents. Have a good business plan. You will rise above being a DOG into something UNKNOWN. This is most start-up wannabe. The firm has the potential to grow ie. High MGR. It is a very good indicator for Investor to fund. Technical know who is essential to make higher RMS by disclosing new ventures and projects so that the masses believing into the trend. This is where a good CEO is needed.
With the right opportunity your firm will be a STAR or GOD-like with high MGR and RMS. This is where the Firm is going to be RAPE by its shareholder and subsequently a downward path begins.
With the decline of MGR, your firm is going on a plateau hopefully, as a CASH COW that continuously milked by its shareholders until a time where it becomes from GOD to DOG. That is the entire life cycle of your Firm.
Strategize with this matrix in mind, you will know what action to take for being relevance and not forgotten into oblivion.
We often come across the term – The Angry Boss. How often do we ask, why the Boss is angry? Well hypothetically he is angry because he is not able to complete a task perfectly and he aspect you to complete it perfectly. Because you are, in fact, imperfect and how is it possible for you to carry out a task perfectly? That is why he is angry and his anger will also make you angry and you throw your anger to your subordinate and everyone in the organization is angry.
To mitigate such do a One Minute Management, daily: -
1 – MINUTE OBJECTIVE. For whatever we do contemplate for 1 minute what is our purpose and objective of doing such thing and write it clearly. For example, my objective is that by 3pm everyone should have a tea break. Can the HR look into these?
1 – MINUTE PRAISE. People say, praise must be cast in stone, insult should be written in sands. Praise your fellow mate for helping you even as small as picking up the phone for you. Trust me, it will make your day.
1 – MINUTE REPRIMAND. Your fellow mate is your mirror to oneself. It is good to reprimand someone who you think had done wrong – but that is only for 1 minute and no longer. For example, hey! Why the HR only brief us on the spot without issuing the guidelines much earlier?
1 – MINUTE APOLOGY. Be brave and if you had identify your shortcomings just ADMIT and apologies. Live moves on. For example, Aiya! My mistake… I should have given you more time to vet the document…
It is PERFECT to be IMPERFECT. Drill oneself of these 4 mantras and everybody’s life will be better. Give it a try!
What is in a Business of Architecture? What makes a FIRM ticking? It is again the model of production – A Stage, A Script and The Crews.
A Stage – Is defined as a Hardware. Its address speaks a thousand words. A Firm in CBD is different from a Firm in the Suburb. The Location, Imagery and its Organization gives meaning to a BRAND. Your office represents what and who you are!
The Crews – Is defined by its ORGANIZATION. Organization is who’s who within the confine of an Office (Stage). There is a “BOSS”, called it by whatever name – CEO, MD, Managing Partner, Principal, he is the “Fountain Head”. He alone makes the ultimatum. If you have 2, the organization is going to doom. Subsequently, it is ROLE PLAYING. The head is supported by his team, all in it is called the ADMINISTRATION. Different components or ROLES are classified as PRODUCTION, MARKETING, IT and so on so forth, each potentially becomes a full-fledged company in itself. Crossing this line, it is an amalgamation of Holding Company with its Subsidiaries. This ORGANIZATION defines its POLITIC.
THE SCRIPT – Each Crew liked an ACTOR has different SCRIPT such as LEADERSHIP, STAFFING, DIRECTING and CONTROLING.
Leadership is best done by example. There are basically 2 types of leadership – the BOSS and the LEADER. You choose…
Staffing is what you want your staff to be 5 years down the road. There is a different between a Career and a Job. Every employee should have a Career path, not just a Job scope!
Directing is another word for Communication. Right communication is essential. If the instruction is clear, the execution erred – it is the executives’ mistake. If the instruction is unclear, the execution erred – it is the superior’s mistake. Communication is to put a decision into action and worse of all is no decision and not wrong decision. It is judgement call. Everyone should have it. For standardization is good practice to lay them down as SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) and DL (Discretionary Limits).
Controlling is the flow of authority. If it originates from the top, it is called top down control and there are various sort of controls. What is your preference?
When you gel all these together, you get yourself a FIRM.
Let’s look at what is in a BRAND. There are 4 quadrants to where your products are graded: -
The first quadrant is where your product is too generic and has no exposure WHATSOEVER to the market thus being irrelevant. In simple word, what is your Architecture? If you are doing the sort of Architecture as just another production oriented firm, you are in the stage of HOPELESS. This is where most startups are.
The second quadrant will see your product move vertical upward. You need your product to be relevant! So, technically you sell your stuff to Design and Built contractors and Developers who can immediately tap into your resources either on pro-bono, below market price or delay gratification basis. At this stage you move from being technically competent to technically intimate with relationship builds after time. You will be known among the circles of people who employed you and to a certain degree take advantages of you. Such your product or Architecture is still very generic in nature. This is what is probably known as COMMERCIAL ARCHITECT. You are just ONE of MANY!
The third quadrant is a horizontal approach. You tend to be Artistic and Passionate about what you are designing. You may have a grand scheme that nobody wants. Who cares? It fills your ego but it may not fill your hunger. You are born rich and you have no family to feed. It is OKAY! This is the sort of Stararchitect in the making. The Primadonna that NOT anyone can be. Your product is so distinctively individual that it is waiting for the right Audience to appear and to accept. The fact is you remain IRRELAVANT.
The fourth quadrant is a GRAND BRAND. It is highly relevant meaning acceptance by the Public and absolutely distinctive. This is where most of the successful practices are. What has it in common?
Your product must be CREDIBLE. Being credible means there must be a degree of trusts put upon your product either in production, services or design. Credibility can only be built upon years but you can destroy within second. That is why BRAND promises, INDIVDUAL don’t.
Your product must be UNIQUE but not necessary functional. There must be some kind of architectural concoction that only you can produce and everybody can remember it. That is your kind of Architecture.
Your product must be RELEVANT. In other words it must be CONTEXTUAL, FINANCIALLY and TECHNOLOGICALLY VIABLE and SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE to a certain degree of POLITICALLY CORRECT. There must be the audience or consumer that constantly consume your product and perpetually financing you.
Your product must be MOTIVATING. It must create a following, a campaign or a movement so that the masses are your believers. This is where you make your product like a cult, religion or the “Opium”. You subconsciously imprint your Brand into people’s thought. You manipulating their desires and selections without giving people choice for selection.
In summary, reaching the Grand Brand is not too far off. It is a diagonal movement along the 4 quadrants. You make a balance between “one of many” and “waiting to happen”. Ultimately translating into creating your very own BLUE OCEAN.
There are 6 aspects to Business Development also known as MARKETING MATRIX.
You must understand your PRODUCT and what you offer. This goes back to the approach of your firm’s orientation such as DESIGN driven, SERVICE driven or PRODUCTION driven. Most start-up will start with PRODUCTION driven. This what known as the “bread and butter” of architecture where recycle of workable plans, fast churning of production drawings and fast authority approval for a mediocre fee are the order of the day. When you are in the market for some time and able to survive the “red-ocean”, you want to carve a name for yourself you start to leech to newbies developer, you start to shift gear to SERVICE driven. Some goes as low as to “SLEEP” with potential clients to get JOB. Some went into POLITICS and be the cronies. Ultimately the performance is measure as to how good your relationships with the Clients. The quality of your product does not count. When you are comfortable enough with the jobs available, you have the opportunity to choose and select and such potentially make you a Starachitect. On this pedestal only then you are DESIGN driven in a “Blue-Ocean” you had created.
You must understand who you are OFFERING to. What will be your market segment? Start-up will approach individual owners because you have no precedent to showcase. Interior works are best to start with for its short gestation period and potentially gloss over magazines. Later they will be promoted to engage with Developers with all kinds underlying tactics. Some will operate as “in-house” others will be engaged as outsourcing that the firm will need to finance itself during the gestation period – also called delayed gratification. Some will be partnering with foreign firms in creating their blue ocean and the lists go on.
You must understand if your offering is UNIQUE. There goes your branding liked ECO-ARCHITECTURE, BIO-CLIMATIC, ICONIC and so forth. This is to create your own market segment – we called “Blue-Ocean” strategy. To garner such you must appear to be EXCLUSIVE. For example, there is a Firm whose individuals happened to be once the President of the Institute of Architecture. He lobbied and headed the newly minted Green Certifying Body under the auspice of the institute. He set his rule and game plan. For out of the Blue, he champions for Green Building and marketed his firm as Guaranteed Green Building Certified Architect in town. Whoever developers wannabe Green must go to him for he only knows how to go about it and no one else.
You must know your PRICE. It is true that the bottom line of any commercial decision is the price. Do you know how much your service worth? It is naïve to think that there is no price war within architectural practices although it is mandatory for all to follow the minimum fee rule. The BIG BOYS are throwing their fee just to keep their organization afloat and the SMALL FRIES are surviving on shoe-string budget waiting to go bust. Price war is the stupidest thing to do and yet is the most practical thing happening in this industry. Both the Board and the Institute cannot do anything about it because it is believed that they are the party to it as well. Learn to be smart with pricing.
You must know how to PROMOTE. Promoting a BRAND is a better choice of word. The practice as a BRAND where Brand Promises, individual don’t. You must be a MEDIA’s darling. You must create events and generate awareness. You must be seen championing a cause. You must engage in Social Media. You must cultivate Brand Awareness within your own organization. You must LIVE as the Brand. You must communicate with the Brand via your writings, speeches, social works and so forth. It must be a 360 days awareness campaign to make your Brand jingles in everybody’s head. If nobody ever knew you existed in the first place, you are a total FAILURE.
In summary, you must have a good PRODUCT. Then you BRAND the product. Next, you PROMOTE the Brand. With the Brand you open up your MARKET SEGMENT. The Market Segment will indicate your PRICE – This is PROGRAMMING.
There are 4 aspects to BUSINESS LIFE-CYCLE – at least in theory la…..
Getting the Business – Business Development. We need a FLESHY PORTFOLIOS. Works that can sell itself without much deliberating. We need to create more SEXY-Buildings. The wow factors that will excite the potential client. If it is not the building we need SEXY-People. Good looking people and charming orators that can sell ice to the Eskimo. We need SEXY-Coverage from the Medias, although the Board is very cautious about it! We need to be creative to work around it. We need to “buy” our way through the intriguing networks of brokers, managers and lobbyists. That is reality – the $ speaks loudest. Over-promise is NEVER a Sin. Under deliver – YES! We also need SEXY-Address. Imagine one lobbying for jobs amounting to Billions with an office somewhere in the slum?
Doing the Business – revenue. Revenue is your BLOOD line, without it everything will “close shop”. Revenue comes in the form of your collections, invoices, bills and so forth. You have to find ways to increase revenue and none other by Getting the Business! Newbies mistake is to provide FREEBIES in the form of Free Proposals that brokers will salvage to sell them to their potential clients in your expanse, not theirs. That is a FAIL Business Model. Recruit debt collectors if necessary because in this line of business, payment is always on credit terms. Overall it is unhealthy. The paradigm has to change. Perhaps bridging loan is a short term solution. Remember, REVENUE = PRODUCTION COST + PROFIT. Either way both production cost and profit have to increase!
Managing the Business – Effective Delegation. One reason business fail is because the Principal abdicated its role to someone else. Abdication is not Effective Delegation. Effective Delegation comes with the reward, abdication – no. Effective Delegation comes with a precise objectives and discretionary limits, abdication – no. Effective Delegation comes with proper reporting, abdication – no, and the list can go on. If one fails to delegate, the organization will not grow. The real assets of the firm is Human Capital, not the owner. The owner is credited for its foresight and vision. In other words, if you find someone asking the screw driver to do a hammer’s job, you know it is going to be trouble!
Financing the Business. This is the very one aspect that makes Architectural Practice a FAIL business model. Firstly, Architectural Practice is heavily dependable on human capital and production technology plus all the fixed expenditure and that incurred REAL Cost. Second, services payment are on credit terms and may not be prompt. Such Financial Charges will add up into our REAL Cost and if you are not careful you will end up with LOAN SHARKS. Thirdly, recouping Bad Debts are a risky business due to high Legal Cost and Prolonged Legal Battle. Holding ransom with the Letter of Release will not offer much help. It fails on the first principle and it really doesn't make money sense to run a firm. Yet, people does it! Why?
These 4 aspects will continue to haunt you. Once in a while you will rudely wake up from your sleep with chilling sweats that you need to make up for the 100K pot holes to keep your firm up and running before the bank foreclose your personal property. If you care to look at the profitable firms, you will understand that they had broken away from this paradigm. The question now is… what is this new paradigm?
Knowing a little of how an Architectural Firm doing business is a good thing. As the saying goes, Business Development (BD) is not a sole individual responsibility but the entire organization’s objective. Without it, there will be no Clientele. Without the client, there will be no business and the consequences are too horrifying to even think about. Everyone within the organization will go hungry, so are their families.
Saying such, what is the Architectural Business Model? What do we do to make a living? That is the fundamental. Sure, we say we makes DREAM. We CREATE. We know the BEST because we are the Architect. Dunno what I am saying? Watch the “Fountainhead”, you will know what I am talking about. In reality, it NEVER HAPPENS the way you intended it to happen.
Let’s look at the Business options available: -
Among the 3 business orientations where are we? Which direction we want to go? How to go about it?